Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions within the body without being consumed. They can be used over and over again.
Substrate - the reactants which the enzyme acts on.
Enzyme-substrate complex - the complex formed when the substrate molecules bind to the enzyme.
Active site - where the substrates bond to the enzymes
Cofactors - non-organic enzyme helpers
Coenzymes - organic enzyme helpers
Allosteric site - another region on the enzyme where materials can bond to the enzyme locking it in either its active or inactive shape.
Feedback inhibition - when the product of the reaction bonds to the allosteric site of an enzyme locking it into its inactive form.
The below image is a good summary of how the catalytic cycle works.
There are two types of inhibition: competitive and non competitive.
Competitive - inhibitor competes with substrate to bind to the active site of the enzyme.
Non-competitive - inhibitor binds to the allosteric region of enzyme.
Here is a video showing the importance of enzymes in out body.