Translation: the process by which mRNA is used to code for proteins.
THINGS TO REMEMBER:
- 3 nucleotides code for one amino acid
- these groups of 3 nucleotides are called codons (there are 64)
- UAA UGA UAG are all stop codons
- AUG is the start codon
- the third base wobble: sometimes, more than one codon codes for the same amino acid. The third nucleotide may differ. This allows for less tRNA (which we will learn about shortly).
- translation occurs from 5 prime to 3 prime also
- amino acids have anticodons complimentary base pairs to those on the mRNA
tRNA: tRNA is known as transfer RNA. It is composed of a string of nucleotides in the shape of a clover. Its shape is secured by hydrogen bonds. It possesses an anticodon on the leaf side where mRNA can bind using hydrogen bonds and a 3 prime end where amino acids can bind by a unstable covalent bond. The third nucleic acid on the anticodon is angled inwards resulting in the third base wobble.
Ribosome: Ribosomes are manufactured in the nucleolus. Their structure helps to form the peptide bind between amino acids. They are made of rRNA and proteins. They are composed of a large and small sub unit. They also have 3 sections: E, P and A.
mRNA, ribosomal subunits and initiator tRNA (for AUG) are brought together by initiation factors.
-An enzyme called aminoacyl-trna synthetase attaches amino acid to tRNA.
The end codon codes for a release factor, and the polypeptide chain is complete!
Here is an animation of the process, enjoy!